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DIET AND NUTRITION

     
             The mission of the Osteoporosis India  is to educate, empower and support individuals and communities in the  
           prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.

 

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Carbohydrates
 
 
Carbohydrates are one of the three macronutrients that have the ability to supply energy and build tissues. They are the most abundant compounds available in the universe. They are of prime importance in the human diet because they are the primary source of energy for the body.

Plants, through the process of photosynthesis, synthesize carbohydrates. They use some of the carbohydrates to  meet their own metabolic needs such as synthesis of proteins. The rest is stored in the form of starch.

Composition:
Carbohydrates, like all organic compounds, are made up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. They get their name from its chemical nature. A carbohydrate means hydrates of carbon because the ratio of hydrogen: oxygen is 2:1 similar to that of water. Carbohydrates are nothing but simple sugars or polymers/combination of sugars, e.g. starch, which can be broken down to simple sugars.

Classification:
Carbohydrates are classified according to the number of basic sugar, or saccharide units making up their structure.

Monosaccharide: they are the simplest form of carbohydrates, often called as simple (single) sugars since they cannot be broken down further. Important among them are glucose, fructose and galactose.

 

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Name

Food Sources

Significance

Glucose (dextrose/grape
 sugar/corn sugar)
Fruits such as grapes,
berries, and oranges and in some  vegetables such as sweet corn  and carrots
 • It is the end product of
   disaccharide and
   polysaccharide digestion.
 • It is the carbohydrate
   circulating in the blood.
 • It is the ultimate body fuel
   in the cells to give energy.
 • It is less sweet than cane
   sugar.

 

Fructose (Fruit sugar) Ripe fruits, honey and some
 vegetables
• It is the sweetest of simple
   sugars.
 • It is changed to glucose in
   the liver and intestine.
Galactose Is not found free in nature
but is produced in the body
during the digestion of
lactose (milk sugar)
• It is changed to glucose in
   the liver.
 • It is synthesized in the
   mammary glands to make
   lactose or milk.
 • It is the constituent of
   glycolipids and
   glycoproteins.

Disaccharides: They are also known as double sugars composed of two monosaccharides linked together. They are split to simple sugars by acid hydrolysis or by digestive enzymes. The three main disaccharides of physiologic importance are sucrose, lactose and maltose.

 

   

 

     
   
         
       
       
   

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